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VoLuME 17 PART 8

NORTH AMERICAN FLORA.

(POALES)

POACEAE (pars)

ALBERT SPEAR HITCHCOCK Jason RICHARD SWALLEN

AGNES CHASE

Subscription Price, $1.90 Separate Copies, $2.55

PUBLISHED BY THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

Juiy 14, 1939

Part 8, 1939] POACEAE 543

culm usually less than 10 cm. long, sometimes longer, 1-2 mm. wide; panicles terminal and from the upper axils, pale, erect, 3-6 cm. long, about 5 mm. thick, the axis mostly hidden by the imbricate spikelets; spikelets, including awns, about 5 mm. long, the glumes shorter than the lemma, the first 2- or 3-awned, the second usually 1-awned, the awns slightly spreading; lemma 3-nerved, pubescent at the margins, the awn 2-3 mm. long; palea about as long as the lemma, pubescent. TYPE LOCALITY: Mexico. eB ETION: Plains and rocky hills, Colorado to Texas and Arizona, and southward to southern

ILLusTRaTIoNs: Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. Bot. 122: pl. 15; Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 17: f. 450; Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. 772: f. 76; Hitche. Man. f. 726.

2. Lycurus phalaroides H.B.K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 142. 1815.

Muhlenbergia lycuroides Vasey; Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2: 239. 1896. (Type from Guadalajara, Mexico, Palmer 489 in 1886).

Lycurus phleoides var. brevifolius Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2: 271. 1896. (Specimens cited from Orizaba and Guadalajara, Mexico.)

Culms cespitose, decumbent-spreading, several-noded, compressed, more or less scaberu- lous especially about the nodes, 15-40 cm. long, producing numerous short leafy fascicled branches at all or many of the nodes; sheaths keeled, scaberulous, scabrous, or scabrous- pubescent, mostly shorter than the internodes; ligule less than 0.5 mm. long, usually not noticeable from side view; blades flat or often more or less folded, scaberulous to pubescent on both surfaces, scabrous on the thickened cartilaginous margin, mostly less than 5 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; panicles terminating the culms and branches, slender, compact, pale, greenish or plumbeous, 2-7 cm. long, about 5 mm. thick; first glume 1l-awned or with a small lateral one; second glume 1-awned; lemma a little longer than the glumes, the body about 3 mm. long, pilose, the awn 2-3 mm. long.

TYPE LocALITy: Michoacan, Mexico. * Distr1euTion: Rocky hills and plains, Coahuila to Chiapas; also in southern South America.

121. COLEANTHUS Seidel; R. & S. Syst. Veg. 2: 276. 1817. Schmidtia Tratt. Fl. Oesterr. 1:12. ‘1816” [perhaps 1811]. Not Schmidtia Moench, 1802.

A dwarf annual, about an inch high, with short flat blades and small few-flowered panicles. Spikelets 1-flowered; glumes wanting; lemma ovate, hyaline, terminating in a short awn; palea broad, 2-toothed, the keels awn-tipped.

Type species, Schmidtia subtilis Tratt.

1. Coleanthus subtilis (Tratt.) Seidel; R. & S. Syst. Veg. 2: 276. 1817,

Schmidtia subtilis Tratt. Fl. Oesterr. 1:12. 1816.” Zizania subtilis Raspail, Ann. Sci. Nat. 5: 452, 458. 1825. (Based on Coleanthus subtilis Seidel.) Wilibaldia subtilis Roth, Enum. Pl. Germ. 1:92. 1827. (Based on Schmidtia sublilis Tratt.)

Culms spreading, forming little mats, mostly less than 5 cm. long; sheaths glabrous, inflated; ligule less than 1 mm. long; blades glabrous, narrow, gradually narrowed to a point, usually curved backward, mostly less than 2 cm. long or the uppermost much reduced; panicles as much as 2 cm. long, with 3 or 4 clusters of spikelets on a slender axis ; pedicels pubescent, about 1 mm. long; caryopsis about 1 mm. long, the lemma, including awn, a little longer.

TYPE LOCALITY: Europe. DistriputTion: Mud flats along the lower Columbia river, Oregon and Washington, well-

established but probably introduced; native of northern Eurasia. ILLustrations: Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. 772: f. 71; Hitche. Man. f. 700.

Mrtzora minima (L.) Desv. Obs. Angers 45. 1818. Agrostis minima I,. Sp. Pl. 63. 1753. Delicate annual, 3-10 em. tall, with short narrow blades and slender racemes of 6-8 appressed purple spikelets 2 mm. long, the glumes obtuse, the lemma and palea shorter, pubescent. ‘TypR ete: France. DistrisuTion: Plymouth, Massachusetts; Sidney, Vancouver Island; native

urope.

544 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [VoLUME 17

Tribe 9. AVENEAE. Annual or perennial, low or rather tall grasses, with flat or sometimes involute blades and often large spikelets in open or contracted panicles, rarely in racemes. Spikelets 2-several-flowered; glumes usually as long as or longer than the first lemma, commonly longer than all the florets; lemmas usually awned from the back or from between the teeth of a bifid apex, the awn usually bent, often twisted, the callus and rachilla- joints usually villous. A rather small tribe widely distributed in both warm and cool regions. In our genera the rachilla is prolonged beyond the upper floret as a slender stipe (except in Holcus and Aira). ‘The lemma is awnless in Schismus, Sieglingia, Dissanthelium, Peyritschia, two species of Trisetum, one species of Koeleria, and most of the species of Sphenopholis. ‘The last two genera are placed in this tribe (instead of in Festuceae) because they appear to be closely allied to Trisetum, with which they agree in having oblance- olate glumes about as long as the first floret, and Dissanthelium and Peyritschia are placed here because the glumes are longer than the florets. The rachilla disarticulates above the glumes except in Sphenopholis, Holcus, and a few species of Trisetum.

Florets all alike except the reduced upper ones, 2 or more. Articulation below the glumes, the spikelets falling entire.

Lemmas, at least the upper, with a conspicuous bent awn; glumes

nearly alike. 126. TRISETUM. Lemmas awnless or (in S. pallens and S. filiformis) the upper witha short awn; second glume much wider than the first. 122. SPHENOPHOLIS.

Articulation above the glumes, the glumes similar in shape. Spikelets 2-flowered, sometimes with a rudimentary third floret. Spikelets less than 1 cm. long. Awn of lemma with a short-bearded joint about the middle. 123, CoRYNEPHORUS. Awn, when present, not jointed. Lemmas keeled, the awn, when present, from about the middle. Glumes about equal, rather broad. 124, DISSANTHELIUM. Glumes unequal, the second wider and usually longer than the first. Rachilla-joints very short, glabrous or minutely pubescent; lemmas awnless or with a straight awn from a toothed apex. 125. KoELERIA. Rachilla-joints slender, villous; lemmas with a dor- sal bent awn (awnless or nearly so in two species). 126. TRISETUM. Lemmas convex. Rachilla prolonged beyond the second floret. Lemmas awnless, or short-awned just below the

tip. 127. PEYRITSCHIA. Lemmas awned below the middle. 128. DESCHAMPSIA. : Rachilla not prolonged. 129. ArRA. Spikelets large, the glumes more than | cm. long. 130. AVENA.

Spikelets several-flowered; lemmas bifid at the apex, awned or mu- cronate between the lobes. Lemmas mucronate only.

Plants annual; spikelets not more than 5 mm. long. 131. ScHismus. Plants perennial; spikelets 8-10 mm. long. 132. SHEGLINGIA. Lemmas with prominent awns. 133. DANTHONIA.

Florets 2, unlike, the one perfect, the other staminate. Spikelets solitary on the branches of the narrow or condensed panicle.

Lower floret staminate, the awn twisted, geniculate, exserted. 134. ARRHENATHERUM. _Lower floret perfect, awnless; upper floret awned. 135. Ho.cus.

Spikelets in groups of three at the ends of the branches of an open panicle. 136. TRISTACHYA.

122. SPHENOPHOLIS Scribn. Rhodora 8: 142. 1906.

Trisetum section Colobanthus Trin. Mém. Acad. St.-Pétersb. VI. 1: 66. 1830. (Type species, Koeleria pennsylvanica DC.) Repowles Kunth, Réyv. Gram. 341. 1830. (Type species, R. gracilis Kunth.) Not Rebouillia Raddi,

Colobanthus Spach, Hist. Vég. 13: 163. 1846. (Based i i i Nop Colbawkas Bard. ane (Based on Trisetum section Colobanthus Trin.)

iX

Part 8, 1939] POACEAE 54

ao

Slender perennial (rarely annual) grasses, with usually flat blades and narrow shining panicles. Spikelets 2-flowered or 3-flowered, the pedicel disarticulating below the glumes, the rachilla produced beyond the upper floret as a slender bristle; glumes unlike in shape, the first narrow, usually acute, l-nerved, the second broadly obovate, 3—5-nerved, the nerves sometimes obscure, mostly somewhat coriaceous, the margin scarious; lemmas firm, scarcely nerved, awnless or rarely with an awn from just below the apex, the first a little shorter or a little longer than the second glume; palea hyaline, exposed.

Type species, Aira obtusata Michx.

Norte: Scribner applied the name Sphenopholis to a group of grasses then known as Eatonia. He showed that the original description of the latter could not apply to the genus as later described

by Endlicher (Gen. P1.99. 1837). The type species of Eatonia Raf. proved to be Panicum virgatum L. (Hitche. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 15: 87. 1910).

Panicle dense, usually spikelike, erect or nearly so; second glume subcucullate. 1. S. obtusata. Panicle not dense, lax, nodding, from very slender to many-flowered, but not spikelike.

Spikelets awnless (rarely awned in S. filiformis). Lemmas not scaberulous-papillose; second glume acute or subacute; panicle many-flowered.

Second glume about 2.5 mm. long. 2. S. intermedia. Second glume about 3.5 mm. long. 3. S. longiflora. Lemmas scaberulous-papillose; second glume broadly rounded at summit; panicle relatively few-flowered. Blades rarely more than 10 cm. long, flat, 2-5 mm. wide. 4. S. nitida. Blades elongate, flat to subinvolute, mostly less than 2 mm. wide. 5. S. filiformis. Spikelets awned. 6. S. pallens.

1. Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. Rhodora 8: 144. 1906.

Aira obtusata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1:62. 1

Airopsis yee Desv. Jour. de Bot. Desv. 1: ‘200. 1808. (Based on “‘Agrostis’”’ [Aira] obtusata Michx

Aira truncata Muhl. Descr. Gram. 83. 1817. (Type from Pennsylvania.)

Koeleria paniculata Nutt. Gen. Add. 1818. (Type from East Florida, T. Say.)

Koeleria truncata Torr. Fl. U.S. 116. 1823. (Based on Aira truncata Muhl.)

Poa obtusata Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 176. 1827. (Based on Aira obtusata Michx.)

Trisetum lobatum Trin. Mém. Acad. St.-Pétersb. VI. 1:66. 1830. (Type from North America.)

Reboulea gracilis Kunth, Rév. Gram.341. 1830. (Type from New England to Florida and Carolina.)

Reboulea obtusata A. Gray, Man. 591. 1848. (Based on Aira obtusata Michx.)

Eatonia obtusata A. Gray, Man. ed. 2.558. 1856. (Based on Aira obtusata Michx.)

Eatonia densiflora Fourn. Mex. Pl. Gram. 111. 1886. (Type from Bejar, Texas, Berlandier 1617.)

Eatonia obtusata var. robusta Vasey; L. Dewey, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 2: 544. 1894. (Type from Wallisville, Texas.)

Eatonia obtusata var. purpurascens Vasey; Rydb. & Shear, Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. Agrost.5:30. 1897. (Type from False Washita, Oklahoma, Palmer 404.)

Eatonia pubescens Scribn. & Merr. Circ. U.S. Dep. Agr. Agrost.27:6. 1900. (Type from Starkville, Mississippi, Tracy.)

Eatonia robusta Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 32: 602. 1905. (Based on E. obtusata var. robusta Vasey.)

Sphenopholis obtusata lobata Scribn. Rhodora 8: 144. 1906. (Based on Trisetum lobatum Trin.)

Sphenopholis obtusata pubescens Scribn, Rhodora 8: 144. 1906. (Based on Eatonia pubescens Scribn. & Merr.)

Eatonia annua Suksd. W. Am. Sci. 15: 50. 1906. (Type from Dalles on the Columbia River, Oregon, Suksdorf 1553. Plants depauperate, flowering the first year.)

Sphenopholis annua A. Heller, Muhlenbergia 6:12. 1910. (Based on Ealonia annua Suksd.)

gaa (teed pubescens A. Heller, Muhlenbergia 6:12. 1910. (Based on Eatonia pubescens Scribn.

Merr. es robusta A. Heller, Muhlenbergia 6:12. 1910. (Based on Eatonia obtusata var. robusta V:

asey. Reboulea obtusata var. pubescens Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 17: 181. 1916. (Based on Eatonia pubescens Scribn. & Merr.) eens wean var. lobata Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 17: 182. 1916. (Based on Trisetum lobatum rin.

Culms erect, tufted, glabrous or slightly scaberulous, especially below the panicle, 30-100 em. tall; sheaths glabrous or finely retrorsely pubescent; ligule truncate; erose-dentate; blades flat, glabrous or scabrous or pubescent, mostly 2-5 mm. wide; panicle erect or somewhat nodding when long and heavy, dense, spikelike to interrupted or lobed, rarely slightly looser, green or tinged with purple, often stramineous at maturity, 5-20 cm. long; spikelets 2.5-3.5 mm. long, the 2 florets closer together than in the other species; first glume 1-nerved, very

546 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [VoLUME 17,

narrow, scabrous on the keel, about as long as the second; second glume very broad, subcucul- late, somewhat inflated at maturity, 5-nerved, scabrous, hyaline-margined; lemmas minutely papillose in texture, the tip greenish, rarely mucronate or with a short straight awn, the lower about 2.5 mm. long.

Typr LocaLity: “Carolina to Florida,” the type specimen from Florida.

DISTRIBUTION: Open woods, old fields, moist ground, and prairies, Maine to British Columbia, and southward to Florida and Mexico; Dominican Republic.

ILLUSTRATIONS: Kunth, Rév. Gram. pl. 84; Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 7: f. 252; Hitche. Man.

f. 544

Nove: Variable in size and in denseness of panicle. Sometimes annual or flowering the first season. Specimens with less dense and lobed panicles may be distinguished from more densely panicled specimens of S. intermedia by the broader, firmer, subcucullate second glume and more approximate florets.

2. Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 303,095. 1909:

Hoelyig. truncata var. major Torr. Fl. U. S. 117. 1823. (Type from Deerfield, Massachusetts,

Cooley.)

Koeleria? pennsylvanica var. major Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2: 469. 1843. (Based on Koeleria truncata var. major Torr.)

Reboulea pennsylvanica var. major A. Gray, Man. 591. 1848. (Presumably based on Koeleria trun- cata var. major Torr.)

?Aira controversa Steud. Syn. Gram. 224. 1854. (Type from Ohio.)

Eatonia pennsylvanica var. major A. Gray, Man. ed. 2.558. 1856. (Presumably based on Koeleria truncata var. major Torr.)

Vilfa alba Buckl. Proc. Acad. Phila. 1862: 89. 1862. (Type from ‘‘Oregon, Spalding’). Not V. alba Beauv. 1812.

Eatonia intermedia Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 32: 602. 1905.

Sphenopholis pallens major Scribn. Rhodora 8: 145. 1906. (Based on Koeleria truncata var. major

orr. Reboulea pallens var. major Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 17: 182. 1916. (Based on Koeleria truncata var. major Torr.)

Culms erect, in small tufts, slender, glabrous, sometimes scabrous below the panicle, 30-120 cm. tall; sheaths glabrous or scabrous or pubescent; ligule 1-3 mm. long, truncate, erose-dentate; blades flat, often elongate, lax, mostly scaberulous, occasionally sparsely pilose, mostly 2-6 mm. wide, sometimes wider; panicle nodding, from rather dense to open, mostly 10-20 cm. long, the axis more or less scaberulous, the branches very slender, scabrous, spikelet- bearing from near the base; spikelets 3-4 mm. long, the rachilla between the 2 florets about 1 mm. long; first glume very narrow, shorter than the second; second glume relatively thin, acute or subacute, about 2.5 mm. long; lemmas subacute, rarely mucronate, smooth or rarely very minutely roughened, greenish at apex, mostly 2.5-3 mm. long; palea thin, narrow, a little shorter than the lemma.

TYPE LOCALITY: East Gallatin Swamps, Montana, Rydberg 3174.

DIsTRIBUTION: Damp or rocky woods, slopes, and moist places, Newfoundland to British Columbia, and southward to Florida and Arizona; Tanana Hot Springs, Alaska.

P HPL US RATIONS: Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 7: f. 251 (as Eatonia pennsylvanica) ; Hitchc. Man.

Nore: This is the species which has recently been called Sphenopholis pallens Scribn., but it is not the same as Aira pallens Spreng., on which that name is based.

3. Sphenopholis longiflora (Vasey) Hitche. Jour. Wash. Acad. 23: 453. 1933.

Eatonia pennsylvanica var. longiflora Vasey; 1. Dewey, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 2: 544. 1894. Eatonia longiflora Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2: 494. 1896. (Based on Eatonia pennsylvanica var. longiflora Vasey.) Sphenopholis pallens longiflora Scribn. Rhodora 8: 145. 1906. (Based on Ealonia pennsylvanica var. longiflora Vasey.) Reboulea pallens var. longiflora Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 17: 182. 1916. (Based on Eatonia longi- flora Beal.)

Culms relatively stout, erect from a decumbent base, glabrous, 40-70 cm. tall; lower sheaths puberulent, the others glabrous; ligule truncate, erose-dentate, 1-2 mm. long; blades

thin, flat, scaberulous, 5-18 cm. long, 3-8 mm. wide; panicle many-flowered, rather loose, slightly nodding, 10-18 cm. long, the axis glabrous, the branches very slender, somewhat

Part 8, 1939] POACEAE 547

flexuous, scabrous, the primary branches as much as 5 cm. long, naked below; spikelets mostly

2-flowered, 4.5-5 mm. long, the rachilla appressed-pilose, 1.3-1.5 mm. long; glumes very

scabrous on the green part, about equal in length, the first very narrow, the second thin,

acute, about 3.5 mm. long, the hyaline margin broad; lemmas smooth, scaberulous toward the

tip, the first about 4 mm. long; palea much shorter than the lemma, the upper bowed out. TYPE LOCALITY: Houston, Texas (Nealley in 1892).

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the type locality. ILLUSTRATION: Hitche. Man. f. 546.

4. Sphenopholis nitida (Spreng.) Scribn. Rhodora 8: 144. 1906.

Aira nitida Spreng. Mant. Fl. Hal. 32. 1807. Aira pennsylvanica Spreng. Mém. Acad. St.-Pétersb. 1807-08: 299. 1810. (Type from Pennsyl-

vania.)

Koeleria pennsylvanica DC. Cat. Pl. Hort. Monsp. 117. 1813. (Based on Aira pennsylvanica preng.)

Aira mollis Muhl. Deser. Gram. 82. 1817. (Type from Pennsylvania.) Not A. mollis Schreb. 1771.

Trisetum pennsylvanicum Trin. Mém, Acad. St.-Pétersb. VI. 1:66. 1830. (Based on Aira pennsyl-

vanica Spreng.) Not Trisetum pennsyluanicum Beauv. 1817.

Glyceria pennsylvanica Heynh. Nom. 1: 361. 1840. (Based on Aira pennsylvanica Spreng.) Reboulea pennsylvanica A. Gray, Man. 591. 1848. (Based on Koeleria pennsylvanica DC.) Eatonia pennsylvanica A. Gray, Man. ed. 2.558. 1856. (Based on Koeleria pennsylvanica DC.) Eatonia Dudleyi Vasey, Bot. Gaz.11:116. 1886. (Type from Ithaca, New York, Dudley in 1882.) Eatonia nitida Nash, Bull. Torrey Club 22: 511. 1895. (Based on Aira nitida Spreng.)

Eatonia glabra Nash in Britton, Man. 1043. 1901. (Type from Madison Co., Tennessee, Bain 507.) Sphenopholis nilida glabra Scribn. Rhodora 8: 145. 1906. (Based on Eatonia glabra Nash.) Sphenopholis glabra A. Heller, Muhlenbergia 6:12. 1910. (Based on Eatonia glabra Nash.) Reboulea nitida Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 17: 181. 1916. (Based on Aira nitida Spreng.) Reboulea nitida var. glabra Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 17: 181. 1916. (Based on Eatonia glabra

Nash.)

Culms tufted, leafy at the base, slender, glabrous, 30-70 cm. tall; sheaths and blades mostly softly pubescent, sometimes glabrous; ligule truncate, erose-dentate, 0.5—1 mm. long; blades 3-10 cm. long, the basal sometimes longer, 2-5 mm. wide; panicle rather few-flowered, usually long-exserted, mostly 8-12 cm. long, rather lax and nodding, the axis glabrous, the filiform branches distant, ascending, spreading at anthesis, mostly naked at base; spikelets 3-3.5 mm. long, the rachilla between the florets scaberulous, about 1 mm. long; glumes about equal in length, 2.5 mm. long, usually nearly as long as the first floret, the first broader than in the other species; second glume broadly rounded at summit, acute; lemmas, at least the second, scabrous-papillose.

TYPE LOCALITY: Pennsylvania (Muhlenberg).

DISTRIBUTION: Dry or rocky woods, Massachusetts to North Dakota, and southward to Florida

and Texas. ILLUSTRATIONS: Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 7: f. 253; Hitche. Man. f. 547,

5. Sphenopholis filiformis (Chapm.) Scribn. Rhodora 8: 144. 1906.

Eatonia pennsylvanica var. filiformis Chapm. Fl. S. U.S. 560. 1860.

some" cle a Vasey, Bot. Gaz.11:117. 1886. (Based on Eatonia pennsylvanica var. filiformis

Eatonia hybrida Vasey; Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2:491. 1896. (Type from Florida, Curtiss in 1886.)

Reboulea filiformis Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 17: 182. 1916. (Based on Eatonia pennsylvanica var. filiformis Chapm.)

Culms tufted, erect, glabrous, very slender, 30-60 cm. tall; sheaths glabrous, or the lower more or less pubescent or pilose; ligule obtuse, erose or ciliate, 0.5-1 mm. long; blades slender, lax, flat to subinvolute, or even closely involute, glabrous beneath, scabrous on the upper surface, or, especially the lower, more or less pubescent, elongate, mostly less than 2 mm. wide; panicle slender, loose, often nodding, 5-15 cm. long, the slender axis somewhat scaberu- lous, the capillary branches rather distant, scabrous, erect or ascending, mostly floriferous from near the base; spikelets 3-4 mm. long, 2-flowered or 3-flowered, the rachilla-joint between the first and second florets about 0.8 mm. long, scaberulous; glumes nearly glabrous, the first narrow, a little shorter than the second; second glume broadly rounded above, acutish, 2 mm. long or a little more; first lemma about 2.5 mm. long, smooth or nearly so; second lemma smaller, scabrous; palea prominent, broad above, scabrous on the keels.

548 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [VoLUME 17,

TYPE LOCALITY: Florida (Chapman).

DISTRIBUTION: Dry soil, on the coastal plain, North Carolina to Florida, Tennessee, and eastern Texas.

ILLUSTRATIONS: Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 7: f. 254; Hitche. Man. f. 549, .

Nore: Occasional awned lemmas, either the first or second, are found in some panicles.

6. Sphenopholis pallens (Spreng.) Scribn. Rhodora 8: 145. 1906.

Aira pallens Spreng. Mant. Fl. Hal. 33. 1807.

Aira pallens Muhl. Descr. Gram. 84. 1817. (Type presumably from Pennsylvania; no locality cited.)

Eatonia aristata Seribn. & Merr. Cire. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 27: 7. 1900. (Type from South Carolina, Curtiss in 1875.)

Eatonia pallens Scribn. & Merr. Cire. U.S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 27: 1900. (Based on Aira pallens Spreng., but the name misapplied to Sphenopholis intermedia ean )

Trisetum aristatum Nash, in Small, Fl. SE. U.S. 130. 1903. (Presumably based on Eatonia aristata Scribn. & Merr.)

Sphenopholis aristata Heller, Muhlenbergia 6: 12. 1910. (Based on Eatonia aristata Scribn. &

Merr.) Reboulea pallens Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 17: 181. 1916. (Based on Aira pallens Spreng.)

Culms erect, about 60 cm. tall; lower sheaths minutely pubescent, the upper glabrous; ligule truncate, about 1 mm. long; blades flat, glabrous, 1-2 mm. wide; panicle narrow, nodding, loose, or somewhat compact, 15-25 cm. long, the axis nearly glabrous, the capillary branches ascending, the lower distant, some floriferous from near the base, some naked at the base; spikelets about as in S. intermedia, 2-flowered or 3-flowered, 3-3.5 mm. long; first glume narrow, a little shorter than the second; second lemma scaberulous, usually awned just below the apex, the awn scabrous, usually geniculate, 1-2 mm. long.

TYPE LOCALITY: Pennsylvania (Muhlenberg). DISTRIBUTION: Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and South Carolina. ILLUSTRATION: Hitche. Man. f. 551.

123. CORYNEPHORUS Beauv. Agrost. 90. 1812. Weingaertneria Bernh. Syst. Verz. Pfl. 23, 51. 1800. (Type species, Aira canescens L.)

Low annual grasses, with narrow blades and contracted or open panicles of small spikelets. Spikelets 2-flowered, the rachilla disarticulating above the glumes, produced beyond the second floret; glumes nearly equal, acute, longer than the two florets; lemmas thin, entire, awned from near the base, the awn jointed about the middle, the joint with a minute ring of hairs.

Type species, Aira canescens L.

1. Corynephorus canescens (L..) Beauv. Agrost. 90, 149, 159. 1812.

Aira canescens 1,. Sp. Pl. 65. 1753. Avena canescens Weber, in Wiggers, Prim. Fl. Holsat.9. 1780. (Based on Aira canescens L.) Weingaertneria canescens Bernh. Syst. Verz. Pfl. 23,51. 1800. (Based on Aira canescens L.)

Culms much branched at the base, tufted, erect, glabrous, 15-30 cm. tall; sheaths roughish, usually purple; ligule obtuse, 2-3 mm. long; blades filiform, involute, scabrous, mostly basal, rather stiff; panicle erect, spikelike or somewhat open, 3-8 cm. long, the axis roughish, the branches appressed; spikelets 2-flowered; glumes nearly equal, about 3 mm. long, pinkish, acute, minutely scabrous; lemmas somewhat pilose at base; awn about as long as the glumes, brown and tightly twisted below, white above, the summit somewhat thickened.

TYPE LOCALITY: Europe.

DISTRIBUTION: Sandy open ground and waste places, introduced at a few places in the eastern

United States; native of Europe. ILLUSTRATION: Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 20: f. 67.

124. DISSANTHELIUM Trin. Linnaea 10: 305. 1836. Phalaridium Nees & Meyen; Nees, Hes Acta Acad. Leop.-Carol. 19: Suppl. 161. 1843. (Type species, P. peruvianum Nees & Meyen.) Stenochloa Nutt. Jour. Acad. Phila. Il. ae "189. 1848. (Type species S. californica Nutt.)

Annual or perennial low grasses with flat or involute blades and narrow panicles. Spike- lets 2-flowered, the rachilla slender, naked, disarticulating above the glumes and between the

Part 8, 1939] POACEAE 549

florets, prolonged beyond the second floret as a minute stipe; glumes firm, nearly equal, acumi- nate, longer than the lower floret, mostly exceeding both florets, the first 1-nerved, the second 3-nerved; lemmas strongly compressed, oval or elliptic, acute, awnless, 3-nerved, the lateral nerves near the margin; palea somewhat shorter than the lemma.

Type species, Dissanthelium supinum Trin. Plants perennial, tufted, mostly less than 10 cm. tall; lemmas very minutely

scabrous. 1. D. sclerochloides. Plants annual, about 30 cm. tall; lemmas pubescent. 2. D. californicum.

1. Dissanthelium sclerochloides Fourn. Mex. Pl. Gram. 112. 1886.

Perennial; culms densely tufted, glabrous, mostly less than 10 cm. tall; sheaths glabrous, loose, somewhat compressed-keeled, striate-nerved; ligule truncate or rounded, dentate, about 1 mm. long, the thin margins of the sheath extending upward into a shoulder or short auricle; blades numerous, pale, cartilaginous, folded or involute, sulcate (at least when dry), glabrous, 1-1.5 mm. wide when flattened out, mostly less than 5 cm. long, the margins very minutely scabrous, the tips abruptly acute or boat-shaped; panicle pale or purplish, dense, ovoid, 1-1.5 cm. long, the axis glabrous, the branches appressed, bearing 1-3 spikelets, minutely puberulent below the spikelets; spikelets 2-flowered, the rachilla between the florets very short; glumes equal, glabrous (even the keel), cartilaginous, broad, acute, 3.5 mm. long, the first 1-nerved, the second rather obscurely 5-nerved; lemmas very minutely scabrous, especially the second, obscurely nerved, ovate-lanceolate, the first 2.5 mm. long, about 1 mm. wide, the second a little shorter and narrower; anthers 1 mm. long.

TYPE LOCALITY: Mexico (cited specimens, Nevada de Toluca, Hahn, San Luis Potosi, Virlet 1434).

DistrisuTion: Alpine regions of high mountains, Mexico (Ixtaccihuatl, Purpus 1633, Nevada de Toluca, Pringle 4222).

¥ bag This species differs from D. calycinum (Presl) Hitche. of Peru and Bolivia in its larger spikelets.

2. Dissanthelium californicum (Nutt.) Benth. in Hook. Ic. 14:56. 1881.

Stenochloa californica Nutt. Jour. Acad. Phila. II. 1: 189. 1848.

Annual, lax; culms more or less decumbent or spreading, glabrous, about 30 cm. tall; sheaths glabrous, rather loose, striate-nerved; ligule truncate, 3 mm. long; blades flat, lax, glabrous, 10-15 cm. long, 1-3 mm, wide, the uppermost near the panicle, not reduced; panicle narrow, loose, about 15 cm. long, the axis glabrous, the branches fascicled, ascending, flexuous, some of them floriferous from the base; spikelets 2-flowered (rarely 3-flowered), the rachilla between the florets slender, glabrous, 0.5 mm. long; glumes longer than the two florets, narrow, acute, glabrous, nearly equal, about 3 mm. long, the first 1-nerved, the second 3-nerved; lemmas pubescent, ovate-lanceolate, compressed, nearly 2 mm. long.

Tyre LocaLity: Santa Catalina Island, California (Gambel).

DisTRIBUTION: Open ground, islands off the coast of southern California and Baja California. ILLustTRATIONS: Hook. Ic. pl. 1375; Hitche. Man. f. 345.

125. KOELERIA Pers. Syn, Pl. 1:97. 1805.

Airochloa Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 126. 1827. (Selected type species, Koeleria cristata (I,.) Pers.) Lophochloa Reichenb. Fl. Germ. Exc. 42. 1830. (Type species, L. phleoides Reichenb.) Brachystylus Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyr. 85. 1867. (Based on Koeleria Pers.)

Slender, low or rather tall, annual or perennial grasses, with narrow blades and shining spikelike panicles. Spikelets 2-4-flowered, compressed, the rachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets, prolonged beyond the perfect florets as a slender bristle or bearing a reduced floret at the tip; glumes usually about equal in length, unlike in shape, the lower narrow, sometimes shorter, l-nerved, the upper wider than the lower, broadened above the middle, 3-5-nerved; lemmas somewhat scarious, shining, the lowest a little longer than

550 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [VoLuUME 17

the glume, obscurely 5-nerved, acute or short-awned, the awn, if present, borne just below the apex. Type species, Koeleria cristata Pers.

Plants perennial; spikelets usually awnless. ib K. cristata. Plants annual; spikelets awned. 2. K. phleoides.

1. Koeleria cristata (I,.) Pers. Syn. Pl. 1:97. 1805.

Aira cristata L. Sp. Pl. 63. 1753. ; ;

Poa cristata L.. Syst. Nat. ed. 12.94. 1767. (Based on Aira cristata L,.).

Festuca cristata Vill. Hist. Pl. Dauph. 1: 250. 1786. (Based on Aira cristata L,.). Not Festuca cristata L.

Koeleria gracilis Pers. Syn. Pl. 1:97. 1805. (Type from Europe.) _

Koeleria nitida Nutt. Gen. 1:74. 1818. (Type from Plains of the Missouri.)

Aira gracilis Trin. Fund. Agrost. 144. 1820. (Based on Koeleria gracilis Pers.)

Airochloa cristata Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 127. 1827. (Based on Aira cristata L.)

Airochloa gracilis Link, Hort. Berol. 2: 276. 1833. (Based on Koeleria gracilis Pers.) ie

Koeleria cristata var. Nuttallii Wood, Class-Book ed. 2.613. 1847. (Presumably based on K. nitida Nutt.

Koeleria eae var. gracilis A. Gray, Man. 591. 1848. (Presumably based on K. gracilis Pers.)

Brachystylus cristatus Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyr. 85. 1867. (Based on Koeleria cristata Pers.)

Koeleria nitida var. arkansana Scribn. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 9: 118. 1885. (Type from Ar- kansas, Nuttall.)

Achaeta geniculata Fourn. Mex. Pl. Gram. 109. 1886. (Type from Mexico, Liebmann 609.)

Koeleria cristata var. pubescens Vasey; Davy, in Jepson, Fl. W. Middle Calif. 61. 1901. (Type from San Francisco, California, Michener & Bioletti.) Not K. cristata var. pubescens Mutel, 1837.

Koeleria cristata var. longifolia Vasey; Davy, in Jepson, Fl. W. Middle Calif. 61. 1901. (Type from Santa Cruz Co., California, Anderson.)

Koeleria cristata var. pinetorum Abrams, Fl. Los Angeles 46. 1904. (Based on K. cristata var. pubescens Vasey.)

Koeleria pseudocristata var. californica Domin, Magyar Bot. Lap. 3: 264. 1904. (Type from San Diego, California, Pringle in 1882.)

Koeleria elegantula Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 172. 1907. (Type from Gunnison, Colorado, Baker 578.)

Koeleria Robinsoniana Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 172. 1907. (Type from Wenatchee, Washington, Whited 1131.)

Koeleria Robinsoniana var. australis Domin, Bibl. Bot.65:173. 1907. (Type from Blalocks, Oregon, Leckenby 28 in 1900.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. gracilis var. dasyclada Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 211. 1907. (Type from Cali- fornia, Lemmon in 1882.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. pseudocristata Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 222. 1907. (Two American forms: densevestita, California, Hall 2206; laxa, California, Heller 7443.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. pseudocristata var. longifolia Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 224. 1907. (Type from California, Nuttall.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. pseudocristata var. oregana Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 224. 1907. (Type from Oregon, Nuttall.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. pseudocristata var. pseudonitida Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 224. 1907. (Type from Wyoming, Nelson 273.)

Koeleria polyantha var. californiensis Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 226. 1907. (Type from San Jacinto Mts., California, Hall 2131.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. nitida var. missouriana Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 233. 1907. (Two specimens cited, St. Louis, Missouri, Riehl 44 and Courtney, Missouri, Bush 773.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. nitida var. californica Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 233. 1907. (Based on K. pseudocristata var. californica Domin. ‘Three subvarieties from California: transiens, Brandegee 3678; multiflora, Parish Brothers 855; vestita, Palmer 405.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. nitida var. sublanuginosa Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 234. 1907. (Type from Miranda, South Dakota, Griffiths 235; subvar. pubiflora, Washington, Lyall in 1860.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. nitida var. laxa Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 235. 1907. (Two specimens cited, Arizona, Palmer in 1890, and New Mexico, Metcalfe.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. nitida var. subrepens Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 235. 1907. (Type from Arboles, Colorado, Baker 185.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. nitida var. munita Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 235. 1907. (Type from Montana, Rydberg 3294.)

Renee peeks subsp. nitida var. latifrons Domin, Bibl. Bot.65:236. 1907. (Type from Nebraska,

yaoerg.

Koeleria gracilis subsp. nitida var. breviculmis Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 236. 1907. (Type from Colo- rado, Baker, Earle, & Tracy 114.)

Korleie Broa, vee nitida var. caudata Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 236. 1907. (Type from Wisconsin,

umlien 99.

?Koeleria gracilis subsp. nitida var. mexicana Domin, Bibl. Bot.65:236. 1907. (Type from Mexico.)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. idahoensis Domin, Bibl. Bot.65:237. 1907. (Type from Lewiston, Idaho, Heller ‘‘ 309” [error for 3091].)

Koeleria gracilis subsp. idahoensis var. pseudocristatoides Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 238. 1907. (Type from Nez Perce Co., Idaho, Heller 3291.)

Part 8, 1939] POACEAE 551

Koeleria gracilis subsp. macrura Domin, Bibl. Bot. 65: 238. 1907. (Three forms: quadriflora, Arizona, Nealley in 1891; trifora, Organ Mountains, New Mexico, Wooton 110; biflora, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, Toumey in 1896.)

Koeleria latifrons Rydb. Brittonia 1: 84. 1931. (Based on K. nitida var. latifrons Domin.)

Tufted perennial; culms erect, slender, puberulent below the panicle, often puberulent at and below the nodes, otherwise usually glabrous, 30-60 cm. tall; sheaths, at least the lower, pubescent; ligule truncate, usually less than 0.5 mm. long; blades flat or involute, glabrous or, especially the lower, pubescent, 1-3 mm. wide; panicle erect, spikelike, dense (loose in anthesis), often lobed, interrupted, or sometimes branched below, 4-15 cm. long, tapering at the summit, sometimes tinged with purple; spikelets mostly 4-5 mm. long; glumes and lemmas scaberulous, 3-4 mm. long, sometimes short-awned, the rachilla joints very short; palea narrow, thin, nearly as long as its lemma.

TYPE LOCALITY: Europe.

DIsTRIBUTION: Prairies, open woods, and sandy soil, Maine and Ontario to British Columbia, southward to Delaware, Ohio, Missouri, Louisiana, California, and Mexico; also in southern South

America as far north as the mountains of Peru and in the temperate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. ILLUSTRATIONS: Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. 772: f. 55; Hitchce. Man. f. 542.

2. Koeleria phleoides (Vill.) Pers. Syn. Pl. 1:97. 1805.

Festuca phleoides Vill. F1. Delph. 7. 1785. Koeleria brachystachya DC. Cat. Pl. Hort. Monsp. 120. 1813. (Type from Europe.) Lophochloa phleoides Reichenb. Fl. Germ. Exc. 42. 1830. (Based on Festuca phleoides Vill.)

Annual; culms erect or spreading, often branching at the base, glabrous, several-noded, 15-30 em. tall; sheaths, especially the lower, somewhat pilose; ligule truncate, erose-dentate, pilose, 1-3 mm. long; blades flat, somewhat rounded or cordate at the base, pilose on the upper surface and sometimes also beneath; panicle pale, dense, spikelike, oblong or ovoid, obtuse, often somewhat narrowed above, 2-7 cm. long, the larger often lobed, the axis and very short branches glabrous, roughish; spikelets 2-4 mm. long, 4-5-flowered; glumes acute, rather broad, glabrous or pilose; lemmas short-awned from a bifid apex, roughened or pilose.

TYPE LOCALITY: Europe.

DistRiBuTION: Introduced from Europe at Pensacola, Florida; Mobile, Alabama; Portland,

Oregon; and at several points in California. ILLUSTRATION: Hitche. Man. f. 542 B.

126. TRISETUM Pers. Syn. Pl. 1:97. 1805. ore Desv. Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2: 189. 1810. (Type species, Aira melicoides ichx. Rupestrina Provancher, Fl. Can. 689. 1862. (Type species, R. pubescens Provancher.)

Tufted perennials (except T. interruptum), with flat blades (except in T. filifolium) and open or usually contracted or spikelike shining panicles. Spikelets usually 2-flowered, some- times 3-5-flowered, the rachilla prolonged behind the upper floret, usually villous; glumes somewhat unequal, acute, the second usually longer than the first floret; lemmas usually short-bearded at the base, 2-toothed at the apex, the teeth often awned, bearing from the back below the cleft apex a straight and included or usually bent and exserted awn (awnless in a few species).

Type species, Avena flavescens L. (selected as the historically oldest of 7 species included by Persoon).

Spikelets disarticulating below the glumes. Plants annual.

Plants perennial.

Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes. Blades involute, filiform. 3. T. filifolium. Blades flat or loosely involute.

Awn included within the glumes or wanting. Panicle rather dense, erect. 4. T. Wolfi. Panicle loose or open, nodding. mrs compressed, glabrous except at the base, 5-6 mm. on Lengine rounded, scaberulous, pubescent, about 4 mm. long. Awn exserted.

T. interruplum. . T. pennsylvanicum.

Noe

. T. melicoides, . T. Pringle.

aun

552 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [VoLUME 17,

Panicle dense, spikelike, sometimes interrupted below.

Lemmas and awn glabrous or nearly so. 7. T. spicatum.

Lemmas villous; awn somewhat plumose. 8. T. Rosei. Panicle loose and open to contracted, but not spikelike.

Awn straight, exserted. 9. T. orthochaetum.

Awn geniculate. Glumes about equal in length and width, narrow, 1-nerved; hairs of the rachilla copious, about 3 mm. long. 10. T. deyeuxioides. Glumes more or less unequal; hairs of the rachilla less copious; second glume more or less 3-nerved. Lemmas conspicuously papillose-roughened. 11. T. irazuense. Lemmas glabrous or scaberulous but not cross-wrinkled. Culms stout, 1-2 meters tall; panicle large, rather densely flowered, 15-30 cm. long; spikelets 3-

flowered or 4-flowered. 12. T. Virletit. Culms more slender and panicle smaller. Rhizomes present. 13. T. Tonduzii.

Rhizomes wanting. Florets distant, usually 3; panicle relatively few-flowered, loose, lax or drooping, the filiform branches naked below; first glume much shorter and narrower than the second. 14. T. cernuum. Florets approximate; panicle rather densely many-flowered. Blades elongate, 1-2 mm. wide, flat or usually involute. 15. T. Palmert. Blades flat, usually more than 2 mm. wide. Panicle narrow, the short branches or some of them floriferous from near the base; spikelets mostly 2-flowered. Panicle yellowish; spikelets mostly 3-flowered or 4-flowered; in- troduced species. 16. T. flavescens. Panicle pale-green, sometimes purplish; spikelets usually

2-flowered. Spikelets about 8 mm. long. 17. T. canescens. Spikelets 5—6 mm. long. 18. T. montanum. Panicle larger and more open; spike- lets mostly 3-flowered. 19. T. viride.

1, Trisetum interruptum Buckl. Proc. Acad. Phila. 1862: 100. 1862.

RColomiegrstts longirostris Buck. Prel. Rep. Geol. & Agr. Surv. Tex. App. 2. 1866. (Type from

exas.)

Trisetum Hallii Scribn. Bull. Torrey Club 11:6. 1884. (Type from Texas, Hall 799 in part.)

Trisetum californicum Vasey, Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. Bot. 13: no. 46. 1892. (Type from Baja Cali- fornia near the northern boundary, Orcutt 1437.)

Sphenopholis interrupta Scribn. Rhodora 8: 145. 1906. (Based on Trisetum interruptum Buckl.)

Sphenopholis interrupta californica Scribn. Rhodora 8: 146. 1906. (Based on Trisetum californicum

Spies Hallii Scribn. Rhodora 8: 146. 1906. (Based on Trisetum Hallii Scribn.)

EIA li Hallii Hitche. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 41: 160. 1928. (Based on T. Hallii

Trisetum interruplum var. californicum Louis-Marie, Rhodora 30: 240. 1928. (Based on T. californicum Vasey.)

Annual; culms erect or spreading, usually branched at the base, scabrous-pubescent below the nodes, mostly with 2 or 3 nodes, 10-40 cm. tall; sheaths often scabrous or pubescent; ligule truncate, erose-dentate, about 2 mm. long; blades flat, sometimes pubescent, 1-4 mm. wide, mostly 3-10 cm. long; panicle narrow, interrupted, from slender to rather dense but scarcely spikelike, 5-12 cm. long, the axis scaberulous, the branches scabrous; pedicels dis- articulating a short distance below the summit; spikelets about 5 mm. long, 2-flowered, the second floret sometimes rudimentary; glumes about equal in length, acute, 4-5 mm, long, the first 3-nerved, the second a little broader, 5-nerved; lemmas acuminate with 2 setaceous teeth, the awn attached above the middle, flexuous, 4-8 mm. long, that of the first lemma often shorter and straight.

TypE Locality: Texas.

DISTRIBUTION: Open dry ground, Texas to Colorado and Arizona; northern Baja California. ILLUSTRATIONS: Bull, U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 7: f. 162; Hitche. Man. f. 566.

oo

Part 8, 1939] POACEAE 55

2. Trisetum pennsylvanicum (L.) Beauv.; R. & S. Syst. Veg. 2: 658. 1817.

Avena pennsylvanica L,. Sp. Pl. 79. 1753.

?Avena caroliniana Walt. Fl. Car. 81. 1788. (Type from South Carolina.)

Avena palustris Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1:72. 1803. (Type from Carolina and Georgia.)

Aira pallens var. aristata Muhl.; Ell. Bot. S.C. & Ga. 1: 151. 1816. (Type from South Carolina.)

Trisetum palustre Torr. Fl. U.S. 126. 1823. (Based on Avena palustris Michx.)

Arrhenatherum pennsylvanicum Torr. Fl. U.S. 130. 1823. (Based on Avena pennsylvanica L.)

Trisetum ludovicianum Vasey, Bull. Torrey Club 12: 6. 1885. (Type from Pointe a la Hache, Louisiana, Langlois.)

Sphenopholis palustris Scribn. Rhodora 8: 145. 1906. (Based on Avena palustris Michx.)

Sphenopholis palustris flexuosa Scribn. Rhodora 8: 143, 145. 1906. (Type from Wilmington, Delaware, Commons 274.)

Sphenopholis pennsylvanica Hitche. Am. Jour. Bot.2:304. 1915. (Based on Avena pennsylvanica \..)

Sphenopholis pennsylvanica var. flexuosa Hubbard, Rhodora 18: 234. 1916. (Based on S. palustris flexuosa Scribn.)

Perennial; culms slender, weak, usually subgeniculate at the base, glabrous, 50-100 cm. tall; sheaths glabrous or rarely scabrous; ligule truncate, erose-dentate, 0.5-2 mm. long; blades flat, scabrous, rather lax, 2-5 mm. wide; panicle narrow, loose, nodding, 10-20 cm. long, the axis glabrous, the branches ascending or appressed, scabrous; pedicels tardily dis- articulating about the middle or towards the base; spikelets 5-7 mm. long, 2-flowered, the long rachilla-joints slightly hairy; glumes 4-5 mm. long, acute, the second a little wider; lemmas acuminate, the first awnless, the second somewhat roughened, awned below the 2 setaceous teeth, the awn horizontally spreading, 4-5 mm. long.

TYPE LOCALITY: Pennsylvania (Kalm).

DisTRIBUTION: Swamps and wet places, Massachusetts to Ohio, southward on the coastal plain

to Florida and westward to Tennessee and Louisiana, ILLUSTRATIONS: Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 7: f. 159; Hitche. Man. f. 564.

3. Trisetum filifolium Scribn.; Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2: 375. 1896.

Trisetum filifolium var. aristatum Scribn.; Beal, Grasses N. Am. 2: 375. 1896. (Type from the Sierra Madre, Mexico, Pringle 1430.)

Perennial, pale or glaucous; culms loosely tufted, ascending from a more or less decumbent base, scabrous below the panicle, 50-100 cm. tall; sheaths scabrous, the lower numerous, marcescent; ligule truncate, scarcely erose, 1 mm. long or less; blades filiform, involute, scabrous, flexuous, mostly basal, 15-30 cm. long; panicle nodding, rather narrow, loose, 10-15 em. long, the axis angled, scabrous, the branches capillary, scabrous, ascending or appressed, some of them floriferous only above the middle; spikelets 5-6 mm. long, about 3-flowered, rather turgid, the slender rachilla-joints villous; glumes rather broad, nearly equal in length and width, about 4 mm. long, glabrous; lemmas only slightly compressed, scaberulous, awnless or awned from about the middle; palea as long as or a little longer than the lemma.

TYPE LOCALITY: Sierra Madre, Chihuahua (Pringle 1431). DistRisuTION: Upper altitudes, mountains of Chihuahua.

4. Trisetum Wolfii Vasey, Monthly Rep. U. S. Dep. Agr. Feb. Mar. 156. 1874.

Triselum subspicatum var. muticum Bolander; S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 296. 1880. (Type from Upper Tuolumne, California, Bolander 5019.)

Trisetum Brandegei Scribn. Bull. Torrey Club 10: 64. 1883. (Type from Cascade Mountains, Brandegee & Tweedy in 1882.)

Graphephorum Wolfii Vasey; Coult. Man. 423. 1885. (Based on Trisetum Wolfii Vasey.)

Trisetum muticum Scribn. Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 11: 50. 1898. (Based on Trisetum sub- spicatum var. muticum Boland.)

Graphephorum muticum A. Heller, Cat. N. Am. Pl.ed.2.31. 1900. (Presumably based on Trisetum subspicatum var. muticum Boland.)

Trisetum Wolfii muticum Scribn. Rhodora 8: 88. 1906. (Based on Trisetum subspicatunt var. muticum Thurber.’’)

Graphephorum Brandegei Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 61. 1917. (Based on Trisetum Brandegei Scribn.)

2 hay te Wolfii var. Brandegei Louis-Marie, Rhodora 30: 241. 1928. (Based on Trisetum Brandegei

ibn.)

Trisetum Wolfi var. Brandegei forma muticum Louis-Marie, Rhodora 30; 241. 1928. (Based on

T. muticum Scribn.)

554 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [VoLUME 17,

Perennial; culms erect, loosely tufted, sometimes with short rhizomes, glabrous, 50-100 cm. tall; sheaths scabrous, or rarely the lower pilose, 2 or 3 above the base; ligule truncate, ciliate, 1-2 mm. long; blades flat, mostly erect, scabrous, rarely pilose on the upper surface, usually rather short, 2-4 mm. wide; panicle erect, rather dense but scarcely spikelike, green or pale, sometimes purplish, 8-15 cm. long, the axis scabrous on the angles, the branches and pedicels scaberulous; spikelets 5-7 mm. long, 2-flowered, sometimes 3-flowered, the rachilla- joint about 2 mm. long, rather sparingly villous; glumes nearly equal, acuminate, about 5 mmm. long; lemmas obtusish, scaberulous, 4-5 mm. long, awnless or with a minute awn below the tip, the callus-hairs scant, about 0.5 mm. long.

TYPE LOCALITY: Twin Lakes, Colorado (Wolf).

DISTRIBUTION: Meadows and moist ground, at medium altitudes in the mountains, Montana to Washington, and southward to New Mexico and California.

ILLusTRATIONS: Bull. U. S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 11: f. 10; Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. Agrost. 17: f. 496, 497; Hitche. Man. f. 554.

5. Trisetum melicoides (Michx.) Vasey; Scribn. Bot. Gaz. 9: 169. 1884.

Aira melicoides Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 62. 1803.

?Arundo airoides Poir. in Lam. Encye. 6: 270. 1804. (Type from North America, Michaux.)

Graphephorum melicoideum Desv. Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom.2:189. 1810. (Based on Aira melicoides Michx.)

?Deyeuxia airoides Beauv. Agrost. 44, 152, 160. 1812. (Based on Aruzdo airoides Michx.’’)

Poa melicoides Nutt. Gen. 1: 68. 1818. (Based on Aira melicoides Michx.)

Triodia melicoides Spreng. Syst. Veg. 1: 331. 1825. (Based on Aira melicoides Michx.)

?Agrostis airoides Rasp. Ann. Sci. Nat. 5: 449. 1825. (Based on Deyeuxia airoides Beauv.)

?Calamagrostis airoides Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 1: 249. 1840. (Based on Arundo